A few nice University of Colorado images I found:
Image by ajschroetlin
On October 6th, 2007 Denver Colorado celebrated(?) it’s 100th anniversary of the Columbus Day parade. For about 20 years, since the parade was revived by local Italian Americans, American Indians have protested the event. They contend that Christopher Columbus was a slave trader and the catalyst to the genocide of their people.
Italian Americans view this as a day to celebrate their heritage. I saw only a few references to Columbus. Mostly folks in nice cars or on cool motorcycles waving U.S. and Italian flags.
The American Indians want the name changed.
Some states have changed the name of the day to Indigenous Peoples Day but I’m not sure that would work here because the Italian Americans have been having this parade for years.
So this is how it all went down. The protesters showed up at the Denver capital building several hours before the parade. Protesting and drumming, some in traditional American Indian clothing. Amazing workmanship and detail.
In the past, protesters and police had spoken beforehand about "how things would go", trying to keep things peaceful.
Going as far as planning arrests. Not this year.
Interestingly enough the leader of the anti Columbus Day group "Transform Columbus Day Alliance" is Glenn Spagnuolo, that’s right Spagnuolo.
When confronted with the permits needed, Glenn stated
"We don’t need a permit, because we are on native land."
"Asking an illegal colonizer for permission to be on land that doesn’t belong to them doesn’t work for us,"
Another group well represented was the American Indian Movement of Colorado. Ex and current Colorado University professors Ward Churchill and Glenn Morris are leaders of this group. Well known Russel Means is also a member, having left the main chapter of AIM.
So they followed their own route, from the capital through downtown Denver, on their way to come head to head with the Italians and their parade. They have always been peaceful and they vowed that today would be the same.
However, they had grown tired of years of words and seeing no actions.
When the protest met the parade, emotions ran deep and blood spilled through the streets. Not real blood however, but fake blood spilled by the protesters along with dismembered dolls. Many protesters sat in the street, stopping the parade from starting. Russell Means and Glenn Morris included. All were arrested. Nobody fought, but they did resist their arrests.
After this initial push by the protesters, the parade went on….a little off schedule. At this point it was lots of yelling and verbal abuse. Protesters yelling at cops and Italians. Italians, including 80 year old ladies and teenage kids, cursing and flipping the bird at protesters. Police officers, staring through mirrored sunglasses with rubber bullet guns, flashing dirty looks at everyone.
After the parade had traveled a few blocks, a group of young American Indians wearing bandannas over their faces made their stand and sat in the middle of the road. About 20 cops jumped on top of them and promptly pulled them apart and arrested them. The protesters didn’t fight, but they did use each other as weight, locking their arms together. One of them came up bloody.
After this, the parade continued and the protesters headed back to the capital to spread the word. 83 protesters taken away on police buses by the time the parade was over.
Personally, I have no vested interest here. I’m not American Indian or Italian American. I do believe that what happened to the native people of this land is horrible. If I was Native American, after years of persecution of my people, I would probably be tired of words and lies too. However I don’t have anything against Italian Americans either and I doubt their ancestors had more to do with Indian genocide than any of the other European countries that settled in the United States.
I think the city of Denver needs to get off their butts and do something about it. How hard is it to change the name of the parade to Italian Heritage Day or whatever and out of respect to the American Indians, have another day for them. How hard is that? 20 years, really?
I also realize the city is planning for the Democratic National Convention but was the show of force necessary, for a group that has maintained their peaceful approach?
A little overkill if you ask me, but then again this is a post 9/11 world, and everyone could be a terrorist.
I think it’s interesting that a woman and black man helped arrest this man. 3 groups who have seen their share of persecution in the United States.
Paradoxides minor fossil trilobite (Jince Formation, Middle Cambrian; Jince area, Bohemia, Czech Republic) 3
Image by James St. John
Paradoxides minor (Boeck, 1828) fossil trilobite from the Cambrian of Bohemia. (tail is 1.6 cm across)
Trilobites are extinct marine arthropods. They first appear in Lower Cambrian rocks and the entire group went extinct at the end of the Permian. Trilobites had a calcitic exoskeleton and nonmineralizing parts underneath (legs, gills, gut, etc.). The calcite skeleton is most commonly preserved in the fossil record, although soft-part preservation is known in some trilobites (Ex: Burgess Shale and Hunsruck Slate). Trilobites had a head (cephalon), a body of many segments (thorax), and a tail (pygidium). Molts and carcasses usually fell apart quickly – most trilobite fossils are isolated parts of the head (cranidium and free cheeks), individual thoracic segments, or isolated pygidia. The name "trilobite" was introduced in 1771 by Johann Ernst Immanuel Walch and refers to the tripartite division of the trilobite body – it has a central axial lobe that runs longitudinally from the head to the tail, plus two side lobes (pleural lobes).
Paradoxidids were some of the largest trilobites ever. They are relatively common large trilobites in Middle Cambrian rocks in many parts of the world. About 150 species and subspecies names are available for Paradoxides (sensu lato), which includes some junior synonyms (subjective & objective) and some homonyms. Generic-level taxonomy of paradoxidid trilobites continues to be in a state of confusion, despite the family treatment by Dean & Rushton (1997). Several genus-level or subgenus-level names are used by various authors to refer to groups of Paradoxides-like species that may or may not be morphologically distinctive (Examples: Paradoxides Brongniart, 1822, Bucephalites Thompson, 1834, Hydrocephalus Barrande, 1846, Phlysacium Corda in Hawle & Corda, 1847, Phanoptes Corda in Hawle & Corda, 1847, Plutonia, Hicks, 1871, Plutonides Hicks, 1895, Eccaparadoxides Šnajdr, 1957, Acadoparadoxides Šnajdr, 1957, Vinicella Šnajdr, 1957, Eoparadoxides Solovev, 1969, Baltoparadoxides Šnajdr, 1986, Macrocerca Pillet in Courtessole et al., 1988, Rejkocephalus Kordule, 1990; some of these are undisputed junior synonyms of other names on the list).
Shown above is part (pygidium attached to thorax) of a nice large specimen of Paradoxides minor from the Middle Cambrian of Bohemia. Some workers refer to this species as Hydrocephalus minor or Paradoxides (Hydrocephalus) minor. It was first named & described & illustrated by Chris Boeck in 1828 as Trilobites minor (see Boeck, 1828, pp. 27-30, pl. 2, figs. 12-14).
This species is often placed in the genus or subgenus Hydrocephalus, named by Joachim Barrande in 1846 for paradoxidid trilobites having noticeably inflated glabellas in early ontogenetic stages (hydrocephaly is a condition in some human fetuses or infants involving swelling of the head due to abnormal fluid buildup). This feature is not apparent in later holaspids, so many authors consider the use of Hydrocephalus at the genus level problematic.
Characters of the cephalon/cranidium (head) of paradoxidid trilobites are often used for defining new species. This is standard practice for most trilobites if the complete exoskeleton is unknown. Unfortunately, the paradoxidid head does not have consistently diagnostic features for species distinctions.
Ideally, paradoxidid trilobite species should be defined based on all characters of the cephalon, thorax, and pygidium. Typically, only the cranidium is represented in a collection. However, the pygidium appears to be the most diagnostic sclerite for distinguishing the numerous species of Paradoxides (sensu lato). Pygidial morphology does vary somewhat within paradoxidid species, but its overall construction does seem more taxonomically useful than cranidial characters.
Classification: Arthropoda, Trilobita, Polymerida, Paradoxididae
Stratigraphy: upper Jince Formation, Paradoxides gracilis zone, upper Middle Cambrian
Locality: Jince area, Stredocesky Region, Bohemia, Czech Republic
Barrande, J. 1846. Notice Préliminaire sur le Système Silurien et les Trilobites de Bohême. Leipzig, Germany. J.B. Hisrschfeld. 97 pp.
Boeck, C. 1828 (not 1827). Notitser til Læren onm Trilobiterne. Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne 8: 11-44, pl. 2.
Brongniart, A. & A.-G. Desmarest. 1822. Histoire Naturelle des Crustacés Fossiles. Paris. F.-G. Levrault, Libraire. 154 pp. 11 pls.
Courtessole, R., J. Pillet & D. Vizcaino. 1988. Stratigraphie et Paleontologie du Cambrien Moyen Greseux de la Montagne Noire (Versant Meridional). Carcassonne, France. 55 pp. 8 pls.
Dean, W.T. & A.W.A. Rushton. 1997. Superfamily Paradoxidoidea. pp. 470-481 in Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part O, Arthropoda 1, Trilobita, Revised, volume 1: Introduction, Order Agnostida, Order Redlichiida. Boulder, Colorado & Lawrence, Kansas. Geological Society of America & University of Kansas.
Hawle, I. & A.J.C. Corda. 1847. Prodrom einer Monographie der Böhmischen Trilobiten. Prague. J.G. Calve’sche Buchhandlung. 176 pp. 7 pls.
Hicks, H. 1871. Descriptions of new species of fossils from the Longmynd rocks of St. David’s. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 27: 399-402, pls. 15-16.
Hicks, H. 1895. On the genus Plutonides (non Plutonia) from the Cambrian rocks of St. David’s. Geological Magazine, Series 4 2: 230-231.
Kordule, V. 1990. Rejkocephalus, a new paradoxid genus from the Middle Cambrian of Bohemia (Trilobita). Vestník Ústredniho Ústavu Geologického 65: 55-60, 2 pls.
Šnajdr, M. 1957. O novych trilobitech z ceskeho kambria. Vestník Ústredniho Ústavu Geologického 32: 235-244, 2 pls.
Šnajdr, M. 1986. Two new paradoxid trilobites from the Jince Formation (Middle Cambrian, Czechoslovakia). Vestník Ústredniho Ústavu Geologického 61: 169-174, pls. 1-2.
Solovev, I.A. 1969. Novye vidy Paradoxides (Trilobity) iz goryuchikh slantsev amginskogo yarusa severnoy Yakutii. Uchenye Zapiski Paleontologiya i Biostratigrafiya, Nauchno-Issledovatelskiy Insitut Geologii Arktiki 25: 9-20, 5 pls.
University of Colorado at Boulder
Image by stephen.butler